BEST FACTS THE HISTORY OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE

THE HISTORY OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE

BEST FACTS THE HISTORY OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE

‌Introduction

The arrival of three Germanic tribes in Britain in the fifth century AD marked the beginning of the English language. These clans, the Points, the Saxons and the Jutes, crossed the North Ocean from what today is Denmark and northern Germany. The people who lived in Britain at that time spoke a Celtic language. However, the majority of Celtic speakers were driven west and north by the invaders, primarily to Wales, Scotland, and Ireland. The Points came from “Englaland” [sic] and their language was designated “Englisc” – from which the words “Britain” and “English” are determined.

THE HISTORY OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE

‌Old English (450-1100 A.D.)

The Germanic tribes that invaded Britain spoke similar languages, which in Britain evolved into the language we now know as Old English. Early English didn’t sound or seem to be English today. Present-day native English speakers would have a difficult time comprehending Old English. However, Old English roots can be found in about half of the most used modern English words. The words, major areas of strength for be water, for instance, get from Early English. Up until about 1100, people spoke Old English.

THE HISTORY OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE

‌Middle English (1100-1500)

In 1066 William the Hero, the Duke of Normandy (some portion of present day France), attacked and vanquished Britain. The Normans, the new conquerors, brought a form of French with them that became the language of the Royal Court, ruling class, and business class. There was a time when the lower classes spoke English and the upper classes spoke French, sort of like a linguistic class division. English regained its dominance in Britain in the 14th century, but many French words were added. Middle English is the name of this language. It was the language of the extraordinary writer Chaucer (c1340-1400), yet it would in any case be hard for local English speakers to see today.

‌Early Modern English (1700–1800)

The Great Vowel Shift, a sudden and noticeable change in pronunciation that saw vowels pronounced shorter and shorter, began toward the end of Middle English. Since the 16th century, the British have been in contact with numerous international populations.

THE HISTORY OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE

Numerous brand-new phrases and words were added to the language as a result of this and the Renaissance of Classical learning. Additionally, the development of printing signified the establishment of a print-based language. Books became less expensive and more individuals figured out how to peruse. Printing likewise carried normalization to English. Spelling and language became fixed, and the lingo of London, where most distributing houses were, turned into the norm. The first English dictionary was released in 1604.

‌Late Modern English (from 1800 to the present)

Vocabulary is the primary distinction between Late Modern English and Early Modern English. There are many more words in Late Modern English because of two main factors: First, new words were needed as a result of technology and the Industrial Revolution; Second, at its height, the British Empire covered a quarter of the earth’s surface, and numerous foreign words were incorporated into the English language.

THE HISTORY OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE

‌Varieties of English

From around 1600, the English colonization of North America resulted in the creation of a distinct American variety of English. Some English pronunciations and words “froze” when they reached America. In some ways, American English is more like the English of Shakespeare than modern British English is. Some expressions that the British call “Americanisms” are in fact original British expressions that were preserved in the colonies while lost for a time in Britain (for example trash for rubbish, loan as a verb instead of lend, and fall for autumn; another example, frame-up, was re-imported into Britain through Hollywood gangster movies).

Spanish also had an influence on American English (and subsequently British English), with words like canyon, ranch, stampede and vigilante being examples of Spanish words that entered English through the settlement of the American West. French words (through Louisiana) and West African words (through the slave trade) also influenced American English (and so, to an extent, British English).

THE HISTORY OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE

Today, American English is particularly influential, due to the USA’s dominance of cinema, television, popular music, trade and technology (including the Internet). But there are many other varieties of English around the world, including for example Australian English, New Zealand English, Canadian English, South African English, Indian English and Caribbean English.

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THE HISTORY OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE

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BEST FACTS THE HISTORY OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE
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THE HISTORY OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE

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