BEST IELTS General Reading Test 333

BEST IELTS General Reading Test 333

IELTS GENERAL READING TEST 333 – PASSAGE – 2

IELTS General Reading Test

IELTS GENERAL READING TEST – 333

READING PASSAGE – 2

Read the text below and answer Questions 15 — 27

VARIABLE PAY – THEN AND NOW

The practice of linking pay to performance has been around for a while. However, what’s new is that the percentage of pay that is linked to performance and the way in which the same is structured around different components of performance. In recent times, the concept of linking pay to performance has taken on an entirely new dimension with the introduction of variable pay. This article discusses some aspects of the variable pay and performance linked incentives in place in the contemporary organizations.

How it Works: One of the key components of this variable pay or incentive plan is the strategy of linking pay to performance. This is a strategy that has been followed by many Multinational companies across the world and consists of the overall pay structure being broken down into components.

These components would include the basic pay, benefits and the variable pay. The variable pay would be paid out as a percentage of the whole subject to the performance of the employee. For instance, if the employee gets a grade of 2 on a scale of 1 to 4, the variable pay would be 70-80% of the eligible amount and if the employee gets a grade of 3, the variable pay would be 100-120% of the eligible amount.

IELTS General Reading Test

Accordingly, the performance of the employee determines the variable component of the salary. The international practice is to increase the component of the variable pay higher according to the hierarchy. This would mean that at senior levels of the employee hierarchy, the variable component can be as high as 50-60% of the overall pay.

Categories of Variable Pay: Further, there can be different categories of variable pay. The first component of the variable pay can be linked to individual performance, the second component can be linked to group performance and the third component can be linked to company performance. The idea behind variable pay is that it provides an incentive for employees to feel a sense of ownership and take responsibility for their jobs and relate to the overall group and company. By introducing variable pay, the management would ensure that employees are motivated to contribute individually and as a group and finally as part of the whole company.

Conclusion: In conclusion, variable pay and performance linked incentives is a necessary evolution to a system where merit is recognized more than it is being done now. Given the fact that many organizations in India follow this approach, it is time for the employees and prospective employees to attune themselves to this concept and work accordingly.

IELTS General Reading Test

Questions 15-21

Fill in the blanks using NOT MORE THAN ONE WORD for each blank from the text above.

The overall pay-out to employees has included an amount linked to performance. However, in recent times, the (15)……… of this amount has changed. The overall pay structure being broken down into various components is a (16)……… adopted by many organizations working in multiple countries. The amount of variable pay that a person can earn is entirely dependent upon his or her (17)………

The (18)……… one is in the company hierarchy, higher the percentage of the incentive as against the overall compensation. The variable pay component of an individual can have different (19)……… and is structured so that everyone is (20)……… to work not only towards his or her personal goals, but also for the objectives of the organization. The variable pay plan has to ensure that (21)……… is rewarded much more than what was happening earlier.

IELTS General Reading Test

Read the text below and answer Questions 22 — 27

SOME EQUIPMENT USED IN GYMNASIUMS

A. BENCH PRESS: This is used for upper body strength training exercises, where you are pushing weight upwards as you’re lying on your back. You want the perfect chest? This is one of the tools you use to train for that chest. MUSCLES USED: Biceps, Triceps, Lats, Shoulders, Chest, and Upper Back.

B. INCLINE BENCH PRESS: Essentially an elevated bench press, but the elevation affects the muscle being targeted. MUSCLES USED: The upper chest is targeted by the incline, as well as shoulders and triceps. It is not uncommon to use dumbbells in conjunction with or instead of a barbell on an incline bench.

IELTS General Reading Test

C. HAMMER STRENGTH MACHINE: A favorite among athletes, this mechanic focuses on explosiveness. MUSCLES USED: Different types target different muscle groups; primarily chest, then shoulders and triceps, to traps, and others.

D. CABLES AND PULLEYS: Very diverse workout machine in the amount and types of exercises that can be performed by attaching grips to the end of the cables.

MUSCLES USED: The inherent design and versatility of this machine allows for it to essentially touch upon every muscle in the body.

IELTS General Reading Test

E. DUMBBELLS: Pretty much the go-to gym equipment most people first think of when they think of bodybuilding. Varying in weight, but having the same concept, a handle bar with weights on opposite ends is similar as regards muscles targeted is concerned. A must have free weight for any fitness regimen. There are even adjustable dumbbells with differing weights all in one piece.

MUSCLES USED: You can target a good amount of muscles with dumbbells. These exercises work the biceps, shoulders and triceps. Some of the muscles you can work with dumbbells are: chest, shoulders, triceps, traps, biceps, lats, glutes, quads, hamstrings, and calves.

IELTS General Reading Test

F. PULLUP BAR: The best tool for upper body exercise and strengthening. You can pull yourself up with any grip, though palms facing forward are the most popular one seen in demonstrations. Different grips and hand positions can affect different muscles. You pull yourself up, until your chin is over the bar.

MUSCLES USED: Trunk, arms, shoulders, abs, pelvic floor muscles, hands and forearms. Different types of pull-ups effect different muscles. Some of the more common types of pull-up exercises are: behind the neck, underhand grip, pull-up to waist, wide/butterfly grip.

G. LAT PULLDOWN MACHINE: Used for strengthening your latissimus dorsi muscle, or lats as they are known. Pull downwards toward you, keeping your elbows and back straight. Google a picture of Bruce Lee and you’ll see the lats you’re capable of attaining with this machine. MUSCLES USED: Upper and lower back; biceps, and lats in particular (as is evident by the name of this exercise machine).

IELTS General Reading Test

Questions 22-27

Which of the above equipment best matches the description given below? Write the letter A-G in columns 22-27 of your answer sheet. You may repeat any letter more than once.

22. Use this to exercise every practically every muscle in the body:

23. This equipment is used quite often along with another one, both mentioned here:

24. The name of the machine tells you the muscles exercised:

25. You can hold this equipment in different ways to exercise different muscles:

26. The most commonly found equipment in gyms:

27. Athletes love to use this machine:

IELTS General Reading Test

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BEST IELTS General Reading Test 333
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IELTS General Reading Test

ANSWERS

15. PERCENTAGE

16. STRATEGY

17. PERFORMANCE

18. HIGHER

19. CATEGORIES

20. MOTIVATED

21. MERIT

22. D

23. B

24. G

25. F

26. E

27. C

IELTS General Reading Test

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