BEST IELTS General Reading Test 409

BEST IELTS General Reading Test 409

IELTS GENERAL READING TEST 409 – PASSAGE – 2

IELTS General Reading Test

IELTS GENERAL READING TEST – 409

READING PASSAGE – 2

PEOPLE AND ORGANIZATIONS: THE SELECTION ISSUE

A. In 1991, according to the Department of Trade and Industry, a record 48,000 British companies went out of business. When businesses fail, the post-mortem analysis is traditionally undertaken by accountants and market strategists. Unarguably organizations do fail because of undercapitalization, poor financial management, adverse market conditions etc. Yet, conversely, organizations with sound financial backing, good product ideas and market acumen often underperform and fail to meet shareholders’ expectations.

The complexity, degree and sustainment of organizational performance requires an explanation which goes beyond the balance sheet and the “paper conversion” of financial inputs into profit-making outputs. A more complete explanation of “what went wrong” necessarily must consider the essence of what an organization actually is and that one of the financial inputs, the most important and often the most expensive, is people.

IELTS General Reading Test

B. An organization is only as good as the people it employs. Selecting the right person for the job involves more than identifying the essential or desirable range of skills, educational and professional qualifications necessary to perform the job and then recruiting the candidate who is most likely to possess these skills or at least is perceived to have the ability and predisposition to acquire them. This is a purely person/skills match approach to selection.

C. Work invariably takes place in the presence and/or under the direction of others, in a particular organizational setting. The individual has to “fit” in with the work environment, with other employees, with the organizational climate, style of work, organization and culture of the organization. Different organizations have different cultures (Cartwright & Cooper, 1991;1992). Working as an engineer at British Aerospace will not necessarily be a similar experience to working in the same capacity at GEC or Plessey.

IELTS General Reading Test

D. Poor selection decisions are expensive. For example, the costs of training a policeman are about £ 20,000 (approx. US $30,000 ). The costs of employing an unsuitable technician on an oil rig or in a nuclear plant could, in an emergency, result in millions of pounds of damage or loss of life. The disharmony of a poor person-environment fit ( PE-fit) is likely to result in low job satisfaction, lack of organizational commitment and employee stress, which affect organizational outcomes i. e., productivity, high labour turnover and absenteeism, and individual outcomes i.e, physical, psychological and mental well-being.

E. However, despite the importance of the recruitment decision and the range of sophisticated and more objective selection techniques available, including the use of psychometric tests, assessment centres etc. , many organizations are still prepared to make this decision on the basis of a single 30 to 45-minute unstructured interview. Indeed, research has demonstrated that a selection decision is often made within the first four minutes of the interview. In the remaining time, the interviewer then attends exclusively to information that reinforces the initial accept or “reject” decision.

IELTS General Reading Test

Research into the validity of selection methods has consistently demonstrated that the unstructured interview, where the interviewer asks any questions he or she likes, is a poor predictor of future job performance and fares little better than more controversial methods like graphology and astrology. In times of high unemployment, recruitment becomes a “buyer’s market” and this was the case in Britain during the 1980s.

F. The future, we are told, is likely to be different. Detailed surveys of social and economic trends in the European Community show that Europe’s population is falling and getting older. The birth rate in the Community is now only threequarters of the level needed to ensure the replacement of the existing population.

By the year 2020, it is predicted that more than one in four Europeans will be aged 60 or more and barely one in five will be under 20. In a five-year period between 1983 and 1988, the Community’s female workforce grew by almost six million. As a result, 51 % of all women aged 14 to 64 are now economically active in the labour market compared with 78% of men.

IELTS General Reading Test

G. The changing demographics will not only affect selection ratios. They will also make it increasingly important for organizations wishing to maintain their competitive edge to be more responsive and accommodating to the changing needs of their workforce if they are to retain and develop their human resources. More flexible working hours, the opportunity to work from home or job share, the provision of childcare facilities etc. , will play a major role in attracting and retaining staff in the future.

Questions 12 -16

Reading Passage 2 has seven paragraphs A-G.

Choose the most suitable headings for paragraphs B-E and G from the list of headings below.

Write the appropriate numbers ( i-x) in boxes 12 -16 on your answer sheet.

NB There are more headings than paragraphs so you will not use all of them. You may use any of the headings more than once.

List of Headings

i. The effect of changing demographics on organizations.

ii. Future changes in the European workforce.

iii. The unstructured interview and its validity.

iv. The person-skills match approach to selection.

v. The implications of a poor person-environment fit.

vi. Some poor selection decisions.

vii. The validity of selection procedures.

viii. The person-environment fit.

ix. Past and future demographic changes in Europe.

x. Adequate and inadequate explanations of organizational failure.

IELTS General Reading Test

12. Paragraph B

13. Paragraph C

14. Paragraph D

15. Paragraph E

16. Paragraph G

IELTS General Reading Test

Questions 17 —22

Do the following statements agree with the views of the writer in Reading Passage 2? In boxes 17 —22 on your answer sheet write

YES – if the statement agrees with the writer

NO – if the statement does not agree with the writer

NOT GIVEN – if there is no information about this in the passage

17. Organizations should recognize that their employees are a significant part of their financial assets.

18. Open-structured 45 minute interviews are the best method to identify suitable employees.

19. The rise in the female workforce in the European Community is a positive trend.

20. Graphology is a good predictor of future job performance.

21. In the future, the number of people in employable age groups will decline.

22. In 2020, the percentage of the population under 20 will be smaller than now.

IELTS General Reading Test

Questions 23 -25

Complete the notes below with words taken from Reading Passage 2. Use NO MORE THAN ONE or TWO WORDS for each answer.

Poor person-environment fit
7. Low job satisfaction

8. Lack of organizational commitment

9. Employee stress
______23___________24_____
a low production rates

b high rates of staff change

____25____
a Poor health

b Poor psychological health

c Poor mental health
IELTS General Reading Test

EE MORE POSTS>>

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BEST IELTS General Reading Test 409

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ANSWERS

12. iv

13. viii

14. v

15. iii

16. i

17. YES

18. NO

19. NOT GIVEN

20. NO

21. YES

22. YES

23. ORGANIZATIONAL OUTCOMES

24. INDIVIDUAL OUTCOMES

25. ABSENTEEISM

IELTS General Reading Test

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