BEST IELTS General Reading Test 428

BEST IELTS General Reading Test 428


Fermented Foods for Babies

Malnutrition during weaning age-when breast milk is being replaced by semisolid foods-is highly prevent in children of poor households in many developing countries. While the etiology is complex and multifactorial, the immediate causes are recognized as feeding at less than adequate levels for child growth and development, and recurrent infections, including diarrhoea, resulting mainly from ingestion of contaminated foods. As a result, many young children, particularly between six months to two years of age, experience weight loss and impaired growth and development.

Studies by investigators in various countries have concentrated on traditional food preparation methods and have resulted in offering cheap and practical answers to these problems based on familiar, indigenous, and culturally acceptable home processing practices.

IELTS General Reading Test

Two such answers have arisen. Firstly, cereal fermentation is used for reducing the risk of contamination under the existing inappropriate conditions for food preparation and storage in many households. Secondly, a tiny amount of sprouted grains flour is used in the preparation of weaning foods as a magic way to lessen the viscosity without decreasing energy density.

A method to eliminate pathogenic bacteria and inhibit their growth during storage of weaning preparations can benefit nutrition and health in young children considerably. The use of fermented foods for feeding children of weaning age appears to be an effective solution. Fermented foods have lower levels of diarrhoea germ contamination, are suitable for child feeding, and can be safely stored for much longer periods of time than fresh foods. The practice has been a traditional way of food preservation in many parts of the world. The anti-microbial properties of fermented foods and their relative higher safety-documented since the early 1900’s-have been indicated in a number of studies.

IELTS General Reading Test

In Ghana, it is common to ferment maize dough before cooking it as porridge. In Kenya, cereal-based porridge and milk are traditionally fermented. Preserving milk in the form of yogurt has been known to many households living in hot climates.

What are the underlying mechanisms by which fermentation processes help to prevent or reduce contamination? A possible answer suggests that during the fermentation process foods become more acidic. This explains why diarrhea-causing bacteria are not able to grow in fermented foods as rapidly as in unfermented ones. It is also hypothesized that some of the germs present in the foods are killed or inhibited from growing through the action of anti-microbial substances produced during fermentation (Dialogue on Diarrhoea, 1990). The fermented foods can, therefore, be kept for a longer time compared to fresh ones. It has been shown that while contamination levels in cooked unfermented foods increase with storage time, fermented foods remain less contaminated.

IELTS General Reading Test

Whatever the underlying mechanisms, the fact is that the exercise reduces contamination without adding to the household cost both in terms of time and money. Its preparation is easy. The cereal flour is mixed with water to form a dough that is left to be fermented; the addition of yeast, or mixing with a small portion of previously fermented dough is sometimes needed. The dough can then be cooked into porridge for feeding to the child.

Although beneficial, unfortunately, the practice is going out of fashion, partly because of the current emphasis on the use of fresh foods, particularly for children. For example, a study on the use of fermented foods for young children in Kenya ( Dialogue on Diarrhoea, 1990), demonstrated that while foods are still frequently fermented at home for child feeding, their use is becoming less popular, particularly in urban areas where commercial products are more available. Clearly, they now need to be promoted.

IELTS General Reading Test

Read the summary and then select the best word or phrase from the box below to fill each gap, according to the information in the Reading Passage. N. B. There are more words and phrases than you will need to fill the gaps. You may use a word or phrase more than once if you wish.

Malnutrition and the resulting impaired growth and development in children of weaning age in developing countries result not only from…………1………..… but also from infections caused by……………2……………… Studies have addressed the problem of inadequate intake by using sprouted grains in food preparation. Contamination has been tackled with …………….3………….… Both of these methods are, or were, used traditionally and are practical and inexpensive.

Fermented foods have higher…………..4………..…, and also have anti-microbial qualities. This means that contamination is decreased and that their……………5………….… is increased. Fermentation occurs when……………6…………..… is left to stand, occasionally with simple additives. There is, however, a trend away from this…………7……………… to commercial products.

IELTS General Reading Test

[A] porridge[H] storage life
[B] malnutrition[I] sprouted grains
[C] fermentation[J] inadequate food intake
[D] new technology[K] acidity
[E] contaminated food[L] unfermented food
[F] diarrhoeal germs[M] weaning
[G] traditional food[N] dough
IELTS General Reading Test

Write the appropriate letter A, B, C, or D.

8. Why is the fermentation of foods being investigated?

[A] It not only improves the nutritional value of food but also is a process thatis cheap and easy.

[B] It is a traditional method of food preparation that is becoming less popular.

[C] It both inhibits food contamination and enhances storability.

[D] It is done using maize flour which is used everywhere as food for infants between 6 months and 2 years of age.

IELTS General Reading Test

The statements below relate to Passage. Identify them by marking

√          if the statement accurately reflects the information in the text

X          if the statement contradicts the information

?          if there is no information about the statement in the text

Write your answers in boxes 9 -13 on your answer sheet.

9. Fermented foods are free of contamination.

10. It can be beneficial to ferment breast milk before feeding to young children.

11. Cooked foods can be stored longer than fresh foods.

12. Cereals can be fermented by adding water and letting the dough stand.

13. Traditional fermented foods are being replaced by commercial products in some locations.

IELTS General Reading Test


BEST IELTS General Reading Test 428

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IELTS General Reading Test

(1) J

(2) E

(3) C

(4) K

(5) H

(6) N

(7) G

(8) C

(9) X

(10) ?

(11) ?

(12) √

(13) √

IELTS General Reading Test

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