BEST IELTS General Reading Test 437

BEST IELTS General Reading Test 437

IELTS General Reading Test
IELTS general reading mock test

Cyber Security for Businesses

All organisations today should take basic steps to protect themselves online and you can take some simple steps to protect your business. Having good cyber security measures in place will help protect your cash flow, your customer data and your reputation.

The first thing you should do is to use a firewall to secure your Internet connection. This can analyse traffic to see if it should be allowed onto your network. There are two types of firewall. You could use a personal firewall on your Internet connected laptop (normally included within your Operating System at no extra charge). Or, if you have a more complicated set up with many different types of devices, you might require a dedicated system.

IELTS General Reading Test

The firewall effectively creates a buffer between your IT network and other, external networks, which in the simplest case means between your computer (or computers) and ‘the Internet’. Some routers will contain a firewall that could be used in this role. Ask your Internet service provider about your specific model.

Another important thing to do is to choose the most secure settings for your devices and software. Manufacturers often set the default of new software and devices to be as open and multi-functional as possible. They come with ‘everything on’ to make them easily connectable and usable. Unfortunately, this can also provide cyber attackers with opportunities to gain unauthorised access to your data, often without difficulty. You should therefore always check new software and devices where possible and make changes which raise your level of security.

IELTS General Reading Test

Your laptops, desktop computers, tablets and smartphones contain your data, but they also store the details of the online accounts that you access, so both your devices and your accounts should always be password-protected. Passwords, when implemented correctly, are an easy and effective way to prevent unauthorised users accessing your devices. Passwords should be easy to remember and hard for somebody else to guess.

The preset user credentials that come with new devices such as ‘admin’ and ‘password’ are the easiest of all for attackers to guess. For ‘important’ accounts, such as banking and IT administration, you should use two-factor authentication, also known as 2FA. A common and effective example of this involves a code delivered to a smartphone that you must enter in addition to your password.

IELTS General Reading Test

One thing that everyone knows about is how it’s necessary to protect yourself from viruses and other malware, i.e. software or web content that has been designed to cause harm. There are various ways in which malware can find its way onto a computer. A user may open an infected email, browse a compromised website or open an unknown file from removable storage media, such as a USB memory stick. Antivirus software is often included for free within popular operating systems, so it should be used on all computers and laptops. For most office equipment, you can pretty much click ‘enable’, and you’re instantly safer.

Finally, you need to control who has the right to view and edit data and services. To minimise the potential damage that could be done if an account is misused or stolen, staff should have just enough ins, online services and device connectivity functions for them to perform privileges to software, sett g  their role. Extra should only be given to those who need them, so check everyone’s accounts. By ensuring as well that your staff don’t browse the web from an administrative account, you cut down on that it will be compromised. This is important because an attacker with unauthorised access the chance to an administrative account can be far more damaging than one accessing a standard user account.

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IELTS General Reading Test

Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the text for each answer.

Cyber Security for Businesses

Good cyber security can protect various aspects of a business. A firewall can process all (15)…………….. to see if it’s safe to get within a business’ network. A pre-installed personal firewall can be used or a bespoke system can be installed to create a (16)…………….. between the business network and the Internet. Next, checking that the (17)…………….. of new systems do not allow easy access to outsiders is something that needs to be done.

All devices also need to be password-protected with appropriate passwords. Sensitive systems should use the added protection of the (18)…………….. that is sent when using 2FA. A further necessary step is to use the (19)…………….. that is again usually pre-installed on most systems. This protects against viruses and malware. Finally, staff (20)…………….. should be restricted to what staff need. Staff with an (21)…………….. should avoid surfing the web, as this can be riskier behaviour.

IELTS General Reading Test

Cash Flow Management

Managing your cash flow is vital for business survival and growth. To run your business effectively, you need to balance the timing and amount of your costs with those of your income.

The business cliché ‘cash is king’ still rings true, and whether it is the result of under trading or over trading, getting the cash position wrong will not only destroy any hope of growth, but could also be the downfall of a small business. Firms that fall prey to cash flow problems often say they find it difficult to monitor and don’t know how to rectify the situation when things are going wrong. However, if businesses can understand their cash position, then they can plan effective action, for example, modifying when they pay suppliers, chasing or encouraging customers to pay early, and cutting back on expenditure.

IELTS General Reading Test

No matter how effective your negotiations with customers and suppliers, poor business practices can put your cash flow at risk. However, there are some practices you could introduce into your business to reduce the risk of cash flow problems. For example, you should think about running credit checks on your customers to ensure they can pay you on time. You also need to deliver on time. If you don’t, or deliver to specification, you might not get paid. You should measure your production efficiency and the quantity and quality of the stock you hold and produce to ensure you can meet all your orders in a way that satisfies your customers.

It seems strange to worry about too many orders, but overtrading can be a danger for many businesses. Overtrading is an imbalance between the work that a business takes on and its capacity to do the work. This can happen when a business takes on work, but cannot live up to the resulting demands. This is particularly common in expanding businesses. It can be extremely serious, even fatal to an organisation, so it’s worth taking time to understand how to prevent it happening to your business.

IELTS General Reading Test

Most businesses offer a maximum three-month period between product delivery and payment. The supplying businesses must of course continue to pay their own overheads and suppliers when due. If too many orders are taking up too much money, in order to pay, for example, for parts and labour, but the customers don’t have to pay for a while, then companies can find their cash reserves dwindling very quickly.

This is a very typical cash flow problem. Many cash flow problems also arise from too many overheads. In order to control these, you could consider outsourcing non-core activities, such as payroll services or review your utilities contracts to see whether it would be cheaper to switch tariff or supplier. Price comparison websites can help with this.

IELTS General Reading Test

Another important factor that people don’t consider enough is whether people can place orders with them easily. Check to see if you accept orders over the telephone, email or Internet, so that customers may be able to pay more quickly. You should also ensure order forms are clear and easy to use to improve the sales and payment processes. If you don’t get the orders at all, then cash flow will of course dry up and your business will very quickly be in trouble.

Sometimes, after doing all you can, your cash flow forecast may still suggest potential cash flow problems. You should consider using something to help. Overdrafts for example can see you through temporarily. Having a cash flow forecast to demonstrate the shortfall is temporary will reassure finance providers. In order to do this, ensure that you keep up-to-date accounting records. This will also help warn you about taking orders you can’t handle.

IELTS General Reading Test

Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer.

Perform credit checks on customer.* This ensures customers pay on time.
Check that you can process orders, so that you don’t overtake.* This ensures you have the production efficiency and enough good (22)………. To process orders. * This overtrading can particularly threaten (23)………. . * Excessive (24)…………. Are also very dangerous.
Check that you can take order easily.* Ensure sales can be placed in different ways. * (25)…………. Should be clear and easy to use,
Use temporary actions to help.* (26)…………. Can help cover financial short falls – show potential (27)…………. Your cash flow forecast to help get the money.
IELTS General Reading Test


BEST IELTS General Reading Test 437

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IELTS General Reading Test

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